UserLand Software - founded by legendary Mac programmer Dave Winer - produces a number of web application server products that work not only on the Macintosh, but on Windows as well. Manila (formerly Frontier) is a comprehensive web scripting / content management system/ weblog publishing system that makes it simple for anyone to create and use web content, collaborate on projects, manage online discussion groups, podcast and share documents.
Downloads are available as free 30-day trials. Frontier includes an integrated HTTP server but works with third-party server software as well.
Manila 9.6 includes a large number of improvements and bug fixes that are fully detailed in the online release notes.
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Can't find what you're looking for? Try a search:
Also, if you have an older Mac, be sure to check out the "Classic" applications page for more options.
Finally, take a look at ALEMIA if you think you know that name of an application, but aren't quite sure.
Mac OS X has a huge amount of TCP/IP-based server software built into it that I don't specifically cover here. Your "Sharing" Preference Pane allows you to enable and disable these services with a click of the mouse. The software running behind the scenes to provide many of these services is generally of the open source variety. The standard release of Mac OS X includes, among many others:
Of course, Mac OS X Server includes many more, in addition to offering more recent versions of many of the above servers.
Graham Orndorff has written a superb collection of articles on setting up email servers and secure email clients on Mac OS X.
These are applications that are newer and of potential interest, but which I haven't yet selected for permanent inclusion. Have a look, and let me know if you think they deserve to be part of the permanent collection!